Pathological outcomes and strategies to achieve optimal cancer control during robotic radical prostatectomy in Asian-Indian men.
Tewari AK., Srivastava A., Sooriakumaran P., Grover S., Desir S., Dev H., Yadav R., Leung R., Shevchuk M.
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of information in the literature about the characteristics of prostate cancer in the Asian-Indian population. We wanted to evaluate the oncological outcomes of Asian-Indians and Caucasians. We also derived a nomogram for prediction of extraprostatic extension (EPE) and presented biochemical recurrence (BCR) rates in the Asian-Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2367 D'Amico low-risk patients underwent robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for clinically localized prostate cancer between January 2005 and July 2010 by a single surgeon. Of these 56 (2.4%) patients were Asian-Indians and 2025 were Caucasians (85.6%). Univariate and multivariate models were created for predicting EPE. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to develop a predictive nomogram. BCR was defined as a prostate-specific antigen ≥0.2 at any postoperative time point. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to investigate BCR rates. RESULTS: A significantly greater percentage of Asian-Indians compared to Caucasians had EPE (32.3 vs. 16.5; P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis adjusted for significant variables from univariate analyses, Asian-Indian race (P = 0.028), age (P = 0.050), maximum percentage cancer on biopsy (P < 0.001), and pathology prostate weight (P = 0.047) were independent predictors of EPE. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated BCR free rates of 94.6% and 95.4%, for Asian-Indians and Caucasians, respectively, at a median follow-up of 16 months (range 2-70 months). There was no statistically significant difference in BCR rates across the two cohorts (log-rank P-value = 0.405). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that while Asian-Indians have more advanced cancer variables, their risk of BCR after surgery is similar to Caucasian patients. Further work is required to better understand the social, genetic and environmental factors that affect the biology of prostate cancer in men of Asian-Indian descent.