Renal angiomyolipoma presenting with massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage due to deranged clotting factors: a case report.
Wright T., Sooriakumaran P.
BACKGROUND: Angiomyolipomata of the kidney are unusual lesions composed of abnormal vasculature, smooth muscle, and adipose elements. They may be associated with tuberous sclerosis and occasionally present with flank pain, a palpable mass, and gross haematuria. As angiomyolipomata grow their risk of bleeding increases, with a greater than 50% chance of significant bleeding in lesions > 4 cm; anticoagulant therapy accentuates this risk. CASE PRESENTATION: A case of massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage in a patient on warfarin is presented. The underlying diagnosis of renal angiomyolipoma was diagnosed based on CT findings. Emergency resuscitation and selective interpolar arterial embolization was performed which saved the patient's life as well as his kidney. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the clinical scenario of massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage in an anticoagulated patient with renal angiomyolipomata. In the emergent situation, adequate resuscitation along ABC principles, as well as control of haemorrhage with either nephrectomy (partial or radical), non-selective renal arterial embolization, or selective embolization of the feeding vessel(s), is necessary. For this to occur, it is imperative to consider the diagnosis early in warfarinized patients (and others at risk of bleeding) who present with abdominal pain. The authors hope this case report highlights to readers the clinical scenario of massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage in anticoagulated patients with renal angiomyolipomata so that they can deal appropriately with such presentations.